Contrastive Learning for Weakly Supervised Phrase Grounding

Tanmay Gupta   Arash Vahdat   Gal Chechik   Xiaodong Yang
Jan Kautz   Derek Hoiem
European Conference on Computer Vision (ECCV). 2020



Maximizing mutual information between image regions and words in a caption with respect to parameters of an attention mechanism learns to ground words to regions in the image without explicit grounding supervision.

Abstract

Phrase grounding, the problem of associating image regions to caption words, is a crucial component of vision-language tasks. We show that phrase grounding can be learned by optimizing word-region attention to maximize a lower bound on mutual information between images and caption words. Given pairs of images and captions, we maximize compatibility of the attention-weighted regions and the words in the corresponding caption, compared to non-corresponding pairs of images and captions. A key idea is to construct effective negative captions for learning through language model guided word substitutions. Training with our negatives yields a ~10% absolute gain in accuracy over randomly-sampled negatives from the training data. Our weakly supervised phrase grounding model trained on COCO-Captions shows a healthy gain of 5.7% to achieve 76.7% accuracy on Flickr30K Entities benchmark.

Randomly sampled qualitative results

In addition to the results included in the paper, here are some randomly selected results to help readers get a sense of performance qualitatively.